Tag Archives: research

Documenting the World of Outlander #2: Meeting Governor William Tryon

[This post was written by Alison Thurman and Josh Hager, Reference Archivists]

This blog is intended as a “bonus feature” for fans of Outlander who want to explore the world of Jamie and Claire through original documents housed at the State Archives of North Carolina. SPOILERS for the first three episodes of Season 4!

Outlander, the hit series from Starz, has officially arrived in colonial North Carolina. This season, Jamie and Claire will traverse the state from Wilmington to the mountains. The State Archives of North Carolina will join them on this journey as we showcase documents that provide a window into their world. Welcome to our biweekly series, Documenting the World of Outlander, wherein each new entry in our series will focus on one topic that appears on screen in Outlander.

In episode one of Outlander, Season 4, “America the Beautiful,” Jamie and Claire are introduced to  Governor William Tryon at a dinner party. He seems interested in the couple’s future plans in North Carolina and takes an opportunity to propose a land deal that interests Jamie a great deal. He offers Jamie large tracts of free land in exchange for recruiting settlers to the back country. If he accepts the deal, Jamie realizes that Tryon will expect his loyalty and gratitude in the future.  Claire knows that conflict with the British is coming and she is suspicious of Tryon’s motives. Is William Tryon to be a friend to the Fraser’s or will association with him bring them unhappiness in the future?

The historical William Tryon served as royal governor of North Carolina from 1765-1771.  He was born in 1729 to a landed gentry family in Surrey, England.  He served in the British military during the Seven Years’ War and rose militarily and politically. Through family connections he obtained a political appointment as governor of North Carolina in 1764 and arrived with his wife, Margaret, and their young daughter, assuming his duties in 1765. He made some internal improvements in the colony such as successfully negotiating a boundary dispute with the Cherokee Indians, establishing a postal service and completing church building projects for the Church of England.  However, he arrived in North Carolina during a period of political unrest in the back county where the Regulator movement was gaining support over such issues as insufficient currency, currency fraud, unequal taxation, and discontent with local officials. Though his time as governor was short, he had to contend with violent conflicts and political upheaval in the years prior to the American Revolution. You can read more on the life of William Tryon on the NCpedia website https://www.ncpedia.org/

List of Land Grants to Scots, Isle of Jura, Argyle Shire, Nov.4, 1767

List of Land Grants to Scots, Isle of Jura, Argyle Shire, Nov.4, 1767 Colonial Governor’s Papers: William Tryon C.G.P.10

In the State Archives we have the official governor’s papers of William Tryon. Most of them have been digitized and made available on the Digital Collections webpage where the public can search by subject, place and time. The papers include petitions from the colonists, proclamations and orders and correspondence on a wide range of topics.

Are you curious to see what kind of genealogical information may be found in his papers?  The image to the left is a list of land grants awarded to Scots from the Isle of Jura, Argyle Shire dated November 4, 1767. It lists not only the names of the families, but the acreage they were allotted in Cumberland and Mecklenburg Counties. This kind of document would have been helpful to Roger and Brianna if they were searching for proof that Jamie and Claire settled in North Carolina.

Are you interested in historical topics included in Tryon’s correspondence of 1765-1771, or do you want to read his proclamations concerning unrest in the back country? You can read all about it in the Governor’s Papers, Historical Collection on the Digital Collections webpage http://digital.ncdcr.gov/

Tryon’s final legacy in North Carolina is the “palace” he commissioned in New Bern in 1767. He was convinced that the colony needed a house of government that was equal to more prosperous British colonial buildings at the time.  It was completed in 1770, but it was controversial from the beginning. The General Assembly allocated a budget for the project, but the costs quickly went over. At the same time settlers were petitioning Tryon to pay taxes with commodities instead of cash because currency was scarce, he was persuading the General Assembly to require an extra poll tax to help pay the cost of building the mansion.  He miscalculated how unpopular this would be with the settlers in the west who did not agree with the need for such an unnecessary extravagance. It only added to existing tensions and was one of the catalysts in North Carolina’s War of the Regulation.

The image below is a list of expenses for the building of Tryon Palace. You can see why some colonists questioned the necessity versus the cost.

Expense for Governor’s Mansion, 1767

Expense for Governor’s Mansion, 1767 Colonial Governor’s Papers : William Tryon C.G.P.6

Gov. Tryon left North Carolina in 1771, to become governor of New York after living in the mansion only a little over a year. It was used as a meeting place for the General Assembly sporadically, but was abandoned in 1792 when the state capital moved from New Bern to Raleigh. Shortly after that, the main building burned in an accidental fire. A reconstruction of the palace was built in the 1950’s using the original architect’s plans and period inventories. Today it is a thriving historic site open  to the public. You may learn more about visiting Tryon Palace at   https://www.tryonpalace.org/

Jamie and Claire will no doubt cross paths with Governor Tryon again, especially now that Jamie has accepted his offer of a land grant knowing that, in return, Tryon is expecting his loyalty and help with any disturbances among his neighbors in the back country.  Accepting an offer of free land where you can begin anew is very tempting, but will Jamie and Claire regret taking Tryon’s deal?

Stay tuned for more…

 

 

Advertisements

Documenting the World of Outlander #1: Land Grants

[This post was written by Alison Thurman and Josh Hager, Reference Archivists]

This blog is intended as a “bonus feature” for fans of Outlander who want to explore the world of Jamie and Claire through original documents housed at the State Archives of North Carolina. SPOILERS for the first episode of Season 4!

Outlander, the hit series from Starz, has officially arrived in colonial North Carolina. This season, Jamie and Claire will traverse the state from Wilmington to the mountains. The State Archives of North Carolina will join them on this journey as we showcase documents that provide a window into their world. Welcome to our biweekly series, Documenting the World of Outlander, wherein each new entry in our series will focus on one topic that appears on screen in Outlander.

This week, we’ll tackle land grants. In the first episode of the season, “America the Beautiful,” Governor William Tryon offers a land grant to Jamie Fraser as payment for his recruitment of new residents in the North Carolina colony. While Jamie’s path to a grant was unique, he wasn’t alone in using a grant to find a corner of North Carolina as his own. Thousands of new residents of the colony took advantage of the land grant process to start a new chapter of their lives.

The process for obtaining a land grant from the Crown government started with a petition to the Secretary of State from the prospective land owner for a specific piece of vacant land somewhere in the North Carolina colony. The Secretary of State then presented the list of petitioners to the Governor’s Council, who generally approved the petitions without objection. North Carolina’s royal government wanted to attract as many new residents to their relatively impoverished colony as possible, so most potential land owners found success with their initial petition. After receiving approval, the land owner received a warrant from the Governor and the Secretary of State including a vague description of the land in question. The land owner then hired a surveyor to draw a plat of their tract. Finally, the Secretary of State’s office received a copy of the plat and then issued a land patent to the new owner. Once the owner received his patent, the land became his property to cultivate as he saw fit.

At the State Archives of North Carolina, we have surviving warrants and plats in the Secretary of State Record Group. As an example, we have an early land plat from 1758 for Rowan County. It is possible that Jamie and Claire settled in what was Rowan County, so their land grant warrant and plat might have looked quite a bit like this record.

Benajah Penington

Secretary of State Record Group, Land Office, Land Warrants, Plats of Survey, and Related Records, 1693-1959, Rowan County, Box 1765, File No. 484, Plat of Grant Awarded to Benajah Penington

Since Governor Tryon spoke to Jamie and offered him a grant as payment for recruiting settlers to North Carolina, we also wanted to show you a warrant signed by the Governor himself. In our Private Collections, we have a land warrant awarded by William Tryon in 1771 on behalf of King George III to William Sprout for an area along the Cape Fear River. Jamie would have kept this document on his person as documented proof that he could settle at Fraser’s Ridge.

William Sprout Papers [PC 950}

PC 950. William Sprout Papers. Warrant of Land Grant from George the Third to William Sprout, Witnessed by William Tryon, 1771).

Are you curious to see who else might have received a land grant? We encourage you to check out our online catalog, MARS, where we have indexed all our land grants by name in the Secretary of State Record Group. Geographic features are often included as subjects, so you might also find success searching for grants near a specific river or creek.

Receiving a land grant in colonial North Carolina was often the first step for new immigrants from Scotland and the rest of the British Isles to become residents of the colony, but obtaining land was easy compared to the day-to-day struggles of settling in rural North Carolina. Jamie and Claire certainly have more challenges in store and we’ll be here to document the real history behind their adventures.

National Asian American and Pacific Islander Heritage Month 2018

May is National Asian American and Pacific Islander Heritage Month, so today we will be highlighting some records and resources on Asian Americans in North Carolina. This is not an exhaustive list of resources, but some ideas of where to start.

Image of Wong Lee's application for citizenship in Durham County, NC in 1940

Wong Lee of China filed for American citizenship in Durham County in 1940. Alien and Naturalization Records. (source)

Asian immigrants were a small but important group in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. The Alien Registration and Naturalization Records list naturalization records of foreign-born citizens, including many from Asian countries. For example, Chinese immigrant and café owner Wong Lee filed for citizenship on June 17, 1940 in Durham County.[1]

Immigration from Asian nations to North Carolina increased after the Vietnam War, coinciding with the origins of National Asian American and Pacific Islander Heritage Month as Asian-Pacific Heritage Week in 1978. Two post-Vietnam groups of immigrants have received particular recognition. First, many Hmong people of Laos have made their home in the Tar Heel state, particularly in Western North Carolina. A large number fought with the CIA during the conflict, and subsequently fled their country for Thailand and then migrated to the United States. On July 22, 2002, Governor Michael Easley proclaimed Lao-Hmong Recognition Day to honor their contribution to the Vietnam War and their presence in the state.[2] In 2009 North Carolina had the fourth largest population of Lao/Hmong in the United States.[3]

Governor Easley's proclamation of Lao-Hmong Recognition Day in NC, 2002.

Governor Easley’s proclamation of Lao-Hmong Recognition Day on July 22, 2002. Excerpt from Journal of the House of Representatives of the General Assembly, page 218. (source)

A second group of Asian Americans whose North Carolina story began in the aftermath of the Vietnam War are the Dega, also known as Montagnards, the latter term originating from the French colonization of Vietnam to include a variety of tribes and cultures who live in the central highlands of Vietnam. Many also cooperated with the Americans in the war and fled in the 1980s and 1990s to Greensboro, North Carolina. Our state now has the largest Montagnard population outside of Vietnam.[4]

The Department of Cultural Resources (now Department of Natural and Cultural Resources) created a documentary about the Montagnards called “Remembering the King of the Fire” in 1991 (MARS ID 5754.348 in the MARS catalog). A subsequent documentary titled “Living in Exile” was produced in 1995 (director Cheney Hales’ papers are in the Vietnam War Papers, Box 3, of the Military Collection).[5]

Southeast Asian cultures and traditions are now celebrated in ways that engage the wider community, such as cultural heritage events. For example, the North Carolina Folklife Area of the 2016 National Folklife Festival in Greensboro featured Laotian cuisine and textiles, as well as Montagnard dances and music.[6] The event was described on the North Carolina Department of Natural and Cultural Resources website. The archive of DNCR and other state government websites, including social media, is available online.

Image of archived webpage for 2016 National Folklife Festival in Greensboro, NC.

At the 2016 National Folklife Festival in Greensboro, NC, Montagnard music and dance were featured, as were Laotian food and textiles. Image of archived web page from NCDCR website. (source)

In 1992, National Asian American and Pacific Islander Heritage Week was extended to a full month. North Carolina’s governors followed suit, issuing proclamations for the month to be celebrated in the state. The proclamations of governors Perdue, Easley, and McCrory are available in the digital collections.

As of 2013, approximately 252,000 Asian Americans called North Carolina their home.[7] Whether you are researching family history and genealogy, interested in North Carolina history, or enjoy learning about the diversity of communities and cultures in the Tar Heel State, take some time to celebrate Asian American and Pacific Islander Heritage Month this May!

If you want more information or individual research help, please contact our reference staff at archives@ncdcr.gov or (919) 807-7310 and they will be happy to assist you.

What stories of Asian American and Pacific Islander heritage have you found at the State Archives of North Carolina?

Resources

Footnotes

[1] Alien and Naturalization Records, http://digital.ncdcr.gov/cdm/compoundobject/collection/p15012coll13/id/1881/rec/1

[2] Journal of the House of Representatives of the General Assembly of the State of North Carolina, 2002 second session, p. 218 http://digital.ncdcr.gov/cdm/compoundobject/collection/p249901coll22/id/666028/rec/16 (accessed April 25, 2018).

[3] Amy Joyner, “Brand New Tar Heels,” Our State, September 2008, p. 127 http://digital.ncdcr.gov/cdm/compoundobject/collection/p16062coll18/id/100179/rec/48

[4] Amy Joyner, “Brand New Tar Heels,” Our State, September 2008, p. 127 http://digital.ncdcr.gov/cdm/compoundobject/collection/p16062coll18/id/100179/rec/48

[5] https://archives.ncdcr.gov/documents/vietnam-war-papers

[6] “North Carolina Folklife Area Planned for National Folk Festival,” NC Natural and Cultural Resources, July 14, 2016 https://wayback.archive-it.org/194/20170323110706/https://www.ncdcr.gov/press-release/north-carolina-folklife-area-planned-national-folk-festival (accessed April 25, 2018)

[7] Rebecca Tippett, “NC in Focus: Asian Population,” UNC Carolina Population Center – Carolina Demography, May 28, 2015, http://demography.cpc.unc.edu/2015/05/28/nc-in-focus-asian-population/ (accessed April 25, 2018).

Hispanic Heritage Month 2017

In honor of Hispanic Heritage Month, we will be highlighting a few records from the State Archives regarding Hispanic populations, a growing proportion of North Carolina’s residents. The United States first began celebrating Hispanic Heritage Month in 1988, a development which coincided with a marked increase in the Latino population in North Carolina. To be sure, there were residents of Hispanic heritage in the state long before then, dating back to interactions with Spanish colonies and the Spanish government in the eighteenth century, and influxes of immigrants in subsequent centuries. The population has grown more rapidly since the 1980s, initially fueled by migrants coming for seasonal farm work. Many came from Mexico and Central America, but the majority moved to North Carolina from other states in the US.[1] Three decades later, they are the fastest growing minority group in North Carolina, and more Latinos have been born in the state than immigrated. In 2010, the Hispanic population was approximately 800,000 or 8.4% of the state’s population.[2]

Page from Alamance County Alien Registration Records, 1940

“Alamance County: Alien, Naturalization and Registration Records: Alien Registration Record,” State Archives of North Carolina. The left page is the record of Leopold Riloba y Ruiloba from Havana, Cuba, filed August 6, 1940.

The State Archives and the State Library of North Carolina have several collections which document the experiences of Hispanic residents. The Spanish Records are copies of eighteenth century colonial records from the Papeles de Cuba at the Archivo General de Indias, the Archivo General de Simanacas, and the Archivo Historico Nacional and Biblioteca Nacional in Madrid that pertain to the southeastern colonies and North Carolina, documenting the state’s early history from the perspective of the Spanish colonial government. The Alien Registration and Naturalization Records contain county records relating to the naturalization of foreign-born citizens, including Hispanic immigrants, and often include pictures, country of origin, family names, and profession. They provide a snapshot into the lives of many people who chose to make North Carolina their home in the first half of the twentieth century, such as Leopoldo Riloba y Ruiloba, a cotton mill worker who came from Havana, Cuba to Alamance County in 1940 with his four children.

This slideshow requires JavaScript.

For more recent information, modern governors’ records include proclamations and executive orders. In 1998, Governor Jim Hunt issued Executive Order 136 to create the Governor’s Advisory Council on Hispanic/Latino Affairs. He also started the Office of Hispanic/Latino Affairs to coordinate state programs to serve the Latino community, including migrant health, cultural diversity, community forums, and domestic violence training. Records from Governors Easley and Purdue include proclamations to observe Hispanic Heritage Month and documentation of the Office of Hispanic/Latino Affairs. In 2013, under Governor Pat McCrory, the office of Hispanic/Latino affairs was absorbed into the Community and Constituent Affairs Office, which serves as the point of contact for all constituents.

Hispanic Heritage Month proclamation by Gov. Bev Perdue, 2012

Hispanic Heritage Month proclamation by Governor Bev Perdue, 2012.

Other publications show state agencies’ desires to tailor their services to North Carolina’s changing constituency. For example, in 2001 the Department of Labor created a volunteer Hispanic Task Force to “identify the unique safety and health hazards that the state’s Hispanic population faces in the workplace and to determine what measures DOL could undertake to reduce fatalities and injuries among Hispanic workers.”[3] In 2006, the North Carolina Department of Public Safety conducted a study to improve services to Hispanic residents, such as providing language assistance to individuals with limited fluency in English.[4]

This is only a small sample of North Carolina records that point to the rich and interwoven stories of our state’s Hispanic heritage. You can explore our full digital collections here, or search finding aids and the online catalog to begin exploring non-digitized records. If you need assistance, our reference staff are happy to help! They can be reached by emailing them at archives@ncdcr.gov.

What have you found out about Hispanic heritage in the state archives?

 

[1] Alan K. Lamm, “Latinos,” NCPedia, 2006, accessed October 5, 2017, https://www.ncpedia.org/latinos.

[2] Gabriela Zabala and Steven Mann, “Demographic Trends of Hispanics/Latinos in North Carolina,” 2012, accessed October 5, 2017, http://worldview.unc.edu/files/2012/04/4-0-1.pdf.

[3] “2001 Annual Report of the N.C. Department of Labor” (North Carolina Department of Labor, 2001), 10, http://digital.ncdcr.gov/cdm/compoundobject/collection/p249901coll22/id/21346/rec/6.

[4] Keith Dowd and Erin Collins, “New North Carolinians: Doing Justice for All in the Criminal Justice System: Providing Services to a Rising Hispanic and Latino Population in North Carolina” (North Carolina Governor’s Crime Commission and Criminal Justice Analysis Center, 2006), 22, http://digital.ncdcr.gov/cdm/compoundobject/collection/p249901coll22/id/9522/rec/1.

Grand Opening: State Archives of North Carolina Store

[This blog post was written by Vann Evans, Correspondence Archivist in the Collection Services Section of the State Archives of North Carolina.]

Piggly Wiggly Store Selling and Displays, 1949. [N_53_15_6340]

Piggly Wiggly Store Selling and Displays, 1949. [Call number: N_53_15_6340] From the Albert Barden Collection, State Archives of North Carolina, Raleigh, NC.

To further its mission of providing access to North Carolina’s public records, the State Archives offers researchers the ability to request records and pay for reproductions from the comfort of their home. In 2012, the State Archives first began accepting electronic payments. Since that time, over seven thousand researchers stretching from Murphy to Manteo, across all fifty states, and from many foreign countries have utilized this service. On April 29, the State Archives of North Carolina opened its new online store.

Some highlights of the new store include images of record types and descriptions of records advertised, links to helpful collection guides, box lists, and digital collections. Other changes include enhanced security protections for credit card data and the addition of new record categories, like Coroners’ Inquests, Bastardy Bonds, Guardian Records, and Revolutionary War era materials.

North Carolina residents never incur fees when requesting records. If a record is found, an invoice will be generated in response to your inquiry. The invoice includes a citation for the material requested and a quote for copying costs. If no record is found the invoice will state that instead.

Since 1978, out-of-state residents have been required to submit a search and handling fee (presently $20), which offsets the cost to North Carolina taxpayers for this service.

In Memoriam: William S. Powell (1919-2015)

[This post is taken from the text of a small exhibit on William S. Powell now on display in the Search Room of the State Archives of North Carolina. The exhibit will be available for viewing until Saturday, April 25. The text for this post was written by Josh Hager, Reference Archivist in the Collections Services Section. For more images related to William S. Powell, see the Flickr collection of the State Archives.]

William S. Powell (Bill Powell) in the UNC Library, c.1970s. From the General Negative Collection, State Archives of North Carolina. Call number: N.74.2.85A

William S. Powell (Bill Powell) in the UNC Library, c.1970s. From the General Negative Collection, State Archives of North Carolina. Call number: N.74.2.85A

William S. Powell, Professor Emeritus of History at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, passed away on April 10, 2015, at the age of 95. After serving in World War II, the Johnston County native received his Master’s Degree in History from UNC Chapel Hill in 1947. Throughout his life, Powell wore many academic hats in addition to his professorship. He worked as a curator for the North Carolina Collection at UNC Chapel Hill, as the editor of History News, and as a researcher for the North Carolina Office of Archives and History.

Powell’s academic career focused on the history of North Carolina. His works are considered seminal for fostering a thorough understanding of the Old North State. For example, The North Carolina Gazetteer is the definitive reference work for identifying all of North Carolina’s varied geographic locales, no matter how obscure. Powell’s contributions, both as an editor and an author, to the Encyclopedia of North Carolina and the Dictionary of North Carolina Biography are invaluable reference works for historians and genealogists alike. Powell was especially well-versed in the earliest years of North Carolina’s colonial past. He wrote a volume on the history of Albemarle County, contributed to the scholarship surrounding the Lost Colony, and helped authenticate the Carolina Charter of 1663 now in the possession of the State Archives.

400th Anniversary Committee Chairmen Meeting, 1982. William S. Powell speaking. Call number: N.84.3.395

William S. Powell (Bill Powell) at the 400th Anniversary Celebration meeting in State Capitol, 25 May 1982. From the General Negative Collection, State Archives of North Carolina. Call number: N.84.3.395.

Powell is a member of the North Carolina Literary Hall of Fame (2008), a recipient of the North Carolina Literature Award (2000), and a recipient of the Distinguished Service Award from Governor James Martin.

This exhibit case is filled with the works which bear Powell’s name and demonstrate his commitment to the history of his native state. The State Archives of North Carolina commemorates his life, his legacy, and his contribution to the scholarship that occurs in this Search Room.

On Land Grant Institutions and Normal Schools: a Companion Blog to “For all useful learning”

[This blog post was written by Josh Hager of the Correspondence Unit, part of the Collection Services Section at the State Archives of North Carolina.]

Through the remainder of 2014, the Correspondence Unit of the State Archives is creating small exhibits in the Search Room to explore the histories of the schools in the University of North Carolina System. The first installation of the exhibit, entitled “For All Useful Learning: The Records of the UNC System Schools,” included records documenting the history of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, the first state-sponsored public university in the nation. From September 16 to September 27, the exhibit will feature documents pertaining to North Carolina State University, Fayetteville State University, and the University of North Carolina at Pembroke. NC State started life as a land grant university while both Fayetteville State and UNC Pembroke started as normal schools. This blog post is a companion piece to this second installation of the UNC Schools exhibit. It will briefly explain what both “land grant university” and “normal school” meant and how those definitions influenced the schools’ histories.

Gov. Kerr Scott in North Carolina State University's yearbook, the 1917 edition of the Agromeck.

Gov. Kerr Scott in the 1917 edition of North Carolina State University yearbook, Agromeck.

NC State began as a land grant institution, defined by the (federal) Morrill Act of 1857 as a university teaching agriculture, military science, and mechanical arts. Although North Carolina received land from the Morrill Act shortly after the bill’s passage, the state did not attempt to open a Morrill-style school until the 1870s. Initially, the state attempted to alter UNC Chapel Hill’s curriculum to conform to the educational goals of the Morrill Act, but public outcry prevented changing Chapel Hill’s traditional liberal arts focus. Instead, the state opened two land-grant institutions in Raleigh: the North Carolina College of Agricultural and Mechanical Arts in 1887 (which became NC State) and the North Carolina Agricultural and Mechanical College for the Colored Race in 1891 (which became North Carolina Agricultural and Technological University State University, later moving to Greensboro). While NC State’s curriculum has grown significantly since its founding in 1887, it is still renown nationally for its academic programs in engineering, agricultural science, and veterinary medicine—all subjects that the Morrill Act recommended over one hundred years ago.

While “land grant institution” has a specific meaning thanks to the Morrill Act, the term “normal school” has a more general meaning: a school dedicated to training new teachers. Derived from the French phrase école normale and a Parisian school so named in the 1830s, normal schools first became widespread in the United States in the second-half of the 19th century. It is not coincidental that the increase in normal schools correlated with an increase in the degree to which state and local governments became more involved in offering quality public education to growing numbers of students.

University of North Carolina at Pembroke, The Museum of the Native American Resource Center

Photo of the Museum of the Native American Resource Center at the University of North Carolina at Pembroke. This photograph is part of the North Carolina ECHO Project available through the NC Digital Collections.

In North Carolina specifically, the General Assembly passed two landmark resolutions that led to the establishment of Fayetteville State and UNC Pembroke. First, the General Assembly passed a resolution in 1877 calling for a normal school for the training of African-American teachers. For the location of the new normal school, state officials selected the Howard School in Fayetteville, which opened in 1869 as a school providing primary education to Fayetteville’s African-American population. Thus, in 1877, the Howard School became the State Colored Normal School, the first state-sponsored institution for educating African-American teachers both in North Carolina and anywhere in the South. The school was renamed as the Fayetteville State Teachers College in 1939, and became Fayetteville State University in 1969. Visitors to the exhibit case can see evidence of Fayetteville State’s commitment to education by having the chance to examine a list of graduates in the 1920s and their placement at schools throughout the Sandhills and further afield.

The second landmark resolution, which is on display in the exhibit case, came to the floor of the North Carolina House in 1887. Robeson County Representative Hamilton McMillan, with the support of a petition of Lumbee Indians from the area, introduced a resolution to found a normal school for the training of American Indian teachers. Croatan Normal School opened in 1887 as a result of this piece of legislation. Croatan Normal School was the first state-sponsored normal school for American Indians in North Carolina. The school underwent several name changes over the years, including Pembroke State College, and became the University of North Carolina at Pembroke in 1996.

Other normal schools followed, including the North Carolina State Normal and Industrial School (1891, later renamed as the University of North Carolina at Greensboro), the Normal and Industrial School in Elizabeth City (1891, later renamed as Elizabeth City State University), and East Carolina Teachers Training School (1907, later renamed East Carolina University). Later exhibit cases will showcase these institutions, but Fayetteville State and UNC Pembroke have a special significance in North Carolina history as the first two normal schools and the first two education schools for minorities.