Monthly Archives: April 2016

World War I Era Parades

[This blog post comes from Sarah Downing, archivist at the Western Regional Archives]

Parade, Asheville, NC, 1918Between 1917 and 1919 Asheville hosted a number of parades to raise money for the war effort and to bolster public sentiment and patriotism.  Record-breaking crowds assembled to watch the processions.  The Western Regional Archives recently received a donation of photographs documenting at least two of these events.

Four days after President Wilson declared war on Germany, 25,000 people lined city streets on April 10, 1917 to watch a succession 5000-strong that was followed by a mass meeting featuring patriotic songs sung by Metropolitan opera star William Wade Hinshaw.

On May 20, 1918, approximately 7,000 people participated in a parade held in conjunction with the Red Cross’s Second War Drive. It was reported that the marchers moved at a quick pace and the entire procession took less than an hour.  With a national goal of $100 million, Buncombe County’s portion to collect was $32,000, nearly 2/3 of which was raised at the rally that followed. According to the Asheville Citizen, “practically every organization in the city and county was represented in the procession, from two or three representatives to several hundreds, all entering into the spirit of the occasion with enthusiasm.”

Parade, Asheville, NC, 1918The War Savings Parade, a “monster patriotic demonstration,” was held Saturday June 22, 1918. No motorized vehicles were allowed in order to save gas.  In addition to military marchers were policemen, nurses, soldiers stationed at Kenilworth (some carried stretchers as a poignant reminder of those in the trenches in Europe), the Asheville Reserve Infantry, the Rotary Club and groups of the Central Labor Union. Industries of the Biltmore Estate were represented by marchers carrying pitch forks, hoes and rakes. Dairy workers carried bottles of milk. At the conclusion, a concert was given at Pack Square by the 31-piece Camp Wadsworth band from Spartanburg, South Carolina.

September 27, 1918 was the day of the Liberty Loan Parade.  The Asheville Chapter of the American Red Cross had a large representation since local organizations had been so supportive of the Red Cross. All participants were asked to display an American flag, no matter how small.

Asheville mayor J.F. Rankin declared a holiday on April 29, 1919 for the opening day of the drive for the Victory Liberty Loan.  Medical detachments including nurses, bands, ambulances and mounted staff from both Azalea and Kenilworth hospitals marched with the Asheville Reserve Infantry, Red Cross Canteen workers and 350 tannery men from Hans Rees & Sons.

Parade, Asheville, NC, 1918

Patriotic parades were also held in Hendersonville, Waynesville, Hickory, and towns across North Carolina and America.

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To Preserve the Blessings of Liberty: State Constitutions of North Carolina

[This blog post comes from Sarah Koonts, Director of Archives and Records for the State Archives of North Carolina.]

“A frequent recurrence to fundamental principles is absolutely necessary to preserve the blessings of liberty”

N.C. Constitution art. 1, sec. 35

Once separated from the rule of England, North Carolina—like other former colonies—found itself with no governmental structure. Before the end of 1776, the state had a constitution very different from today’s document. For example, the General Assembly—and not citizens—selected the governor for a one-year term. Only free men of at least twenty-one years of age could vote.  Only landowners could hold political office. The social structure of eighteenth-century America informed those men who drafted the constitution and North Carolina’s Declaration of Rights.

Portion of the Constitution of the United States as Approved by North Carolina, 1789.

Portion of the Constitution of the United States as Approved by North Carolina, 1789.

North Carolina continued to amend the constitution and eventually adopted entirely new constitutions in 1868 and 1971. The rights and protections of some of the state’s citizens were broadened while other rights remained restricted or hampered.  Over the years the structure of state government changed, increasing the power of the governor, providing for direct elections for many executive offices, reorganizing government departments and agencies, and eliminating restrictions to rights.

Part of the State Constitution of 1868.

Part of the State Constitution of 1868.

Throughout 2016 the State Archives is partnering with museums and historic sites to display historic constitutional materials around the state.  Called “To Preserve the Blessings of Liberty:  State Constitutions of North Carolina,” exhibit locations and times may be found on the State Archives’ Facebook page. The public is invited to view these documents while they are on display. The inaugural exhibit will take place at the opening of the 2016 General Assembly session.  It will feature North Carolina’s early constitutions, the original Declaration of Rights, and amendments to the state and U.S. Constitution that affected citizen voting rights.  The exhibit will be located on the main floor of the General Assembly building (16 West Jones Street in Raleigh) from 2 p.m. on April 25 through April 26 at 3 p.m.  All of the State Archives’ constitution materials housed in the vault collection are available for viewing any time in the North Carolina Digital Collections.